Following privatisation in the 1980s, Japan Airlines continued to grow, until it faced the threat of bankruptcy in 2010. Having emerged successfully from that crisis, it is now struggling with the effects of the coronavirus pandemic, as Jozef Mols details
There had been discussions in Japan about possible airline deregulation since the late 1970s and, on November 18, 1987, JAL was completely privatised. Although the airline had been the designated national flag carrier since 1972, it would now have to compete with All Nippon Airways and Japan Air System on both domestic andinternational routes. Increased competition resulted in changes to the airline's corporate structure. It was reorganised into three divisions: international passenger services, domestic passenger services and cargo and mail services.
Facing stiffening competition, JAL embarked on a series of codeshare agreements with major airlines around the globe. In 1986, the airline had entered into one with Qantas on two routes: