Irkut MC-21

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A good article by UAC about the preparations for the production of the MC-21:

Operation "cooperation": participation of the enterprises of the KLA in the program MS-21 will reduce the cost of the liner

Final Assembly of the MS-21 comes to the IAP
Plane MS-21 is created in broad cooperation. New materials, engines and systems of the latest generation are developed and delivered by leading domestic and foreign companies. When preparing to produce a new liner on the majority of Russian enterprises – participants of the program were conducted large-scale technical re-equipment. In addition, to participate in the production of MS-21 has created a new high-tech companies. All companies prepared by highly qualified staff.

Modern equipment and automated lines ensure the high quality of the aircraft.

The MS-21 was the first civil passenger aircraft, production of which was organized after the formation of the KLA. This made it possible to better distribute the load between the head executor of the program – the Corporation "Irkut" and other enterprises of the KLA. The use of broad cooperation will reduce the cost of aircraft, as well as better load capacity of the enterprises of the Corporation.

The Prime contractor on the program MS-21 were identified, the Corporation "Irkut". Final Assembly of aircraft and installation of their systems are performed at the Irkutsk aircraft plant (IAP) – branch of the Corporation. The quality management system of Corporation "Irkut" is certified according to standards EN/AS 9100:2009 in the field of design, production, cooperation, after-sales service and technical support of civil aircraft.

Currently, the Corporation "Irkut" is also mass-produces multi-purpose fighter su-30CM and su-30MK, combat training new generation aircraft Yak-130, is developing a new light training aircraft Yak-152. The aircraft delivered to the Russian defense Ministry and foreign customers. In addition, since 2008, the Corporation produces and supplies components for passenger aircraft of the A320 Airbus SE.

Irkutsk modernization

Installation of passenger cabin MS-21-300-0001 in Irkutsk

The main project of the Corporation "Irkut" in the field of civil aviation is the development and production of short and medium-haul aircraft MS-21. In preparation for their mass production of "Irkut" held at the Irkutsk aviation plant, major upgrades. Here's how to tell about already performed at the plant and the future work of the General Director of Irkutsk aviation plant, Vice-President of Corporation "Irkut" Alexander boar in an interview Irkutsk newspaper "the Regional":

– Made a very important first stage of modernization of basic production facilities and reconstruction of the company. On the basis of digital technology conducted training of production, mastered the complex high-performance technologies with more efficient equipment. In the construction of prototypes are processed and adjusted by serial technology depends on the complexity of manufacturing supply aircraft and, of course, the cost of manufacturing.

In the first half of 2018 put into operation the first stage of a logistics center manage the supply chain for aircraft MS-21. In the first half of 2019, we plan to complete the construction of the new plant for final Assembly of military equipment with the aim to release the square of the current Assembly building under MS-21.

Also is finishing construction of a new plant for the manufacture of wire harnesses (the construction is JSC "Aerospace systems"). At the end of December will be put into operation two new stations for the Assembly of fuselage and joining, which will allow to increase the throughput of an Assembly line for MS-21. In 2018, began the construction of new hangars with an area of 6400 square meters for ground testing civilian cars and customization.

Also in November 2018 negotiations for the supply of the second phase of an automatic Assembly line MS-21, which will allow to increase production to 36 aircraft per year.

Perfected the industrial model of cooperation for the construction of prototypes. It is important that the phased increase in production capacity consistently maintained all participants in industrial cooperation model. The effectiveness of this model and its further development will largely depend on the quality and pace of production of MS-21. This will further eliminate the risks during production of the liner.
The plant is planned to prepare qualified personnel only in recent years created more than 2 thousand new high-tech jobs.

Times past and present

"History of the world aircraft industry shows that, traditionally, the manufacture of the airframe and final Assembly took place at one plant, whereas other systems – especially the engines – was produced by the specialized suppliers", – said the chief editor of the magazine "air transport observer" Alexei Sinitsky.

In the Soviet Union, moreover, was still its own specifics. The main products are aircraft building enterprises were military planes. According to the requirements of industry leadership and the military customer, in the company-finalist were organized, often, a complete production cycle of the airframe from the cutting of the supplied material to final Assembly of the finished product. Such a scheme would be justified in wartime: aircraft production could be Autonomous, not dependent on the supply of parts and components from other companies. The main contractors are the engine builders, priority, etc. were quartered in the neighborhood, often on the same street or even behind the fence.

Currently, however, this production scheme has been far from ideal. In the composition of the KLA were about a dozen plants-finalists, each of which had a similar production. Their total capacity was not commensurate with the existing volume of orders. However, many of the aircraft companies were forming. Their closure could result in serious social problems.

A much better solution was the creation on their basis of companies that specialize in a certain production. Often they are called centers of competence. This is a special type of structural element at the company, which controls one or more important activities. This separation of production into specialized centers is a global trend, including in the aircraft industry. "The tendency to separation of production and outsourcing is playing an increasing role in the manufacture of aircraft, – says Alexey Sinitsky. – Contribute to technical, economic and political factors. It is clear that the specialized enterprise focusing all its efforts, can achieve high technical excellence in your chosen field. The increasing volume of specialized production leads to lower unit costs and increase competitiveness of the components themselves, and the entire aircraft as a whole.

The transfer of production to other countries with lower labor costs, not only helps to further reduce costs, but also enables aircraft manufacturers to more actively promote their products in the local market -- this is a political factor of outsourcing. The development of these trends yourself, aircraft manufacturers increasingly turning into a system integrator responsible for the development of the aircraft and final Assembly of finished components."

The experience of recent major international projects confirms this trend. For example, if in the manufacture of aircraft the Boeing 737 and Boeing 747 itself, aircraft manufacturers producing about 50-65 % of the components of the airframe, the 787 program the Boeing share has declined to about 30 %. Moreover, in the manufacture of airframe "Dreamliner" was attended by only three companies of the Boeing, and that is located not only in the U.S. but also in Australia and Canada. The remaining 33 component manufacturer of the airframe has been third-party providers of the first level from the United States, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Italy, France, Sweden, and India.

Airbus initially planned to make at least in the framework of Franco-German cooperation because the European company originated in the merger of aircraft firms of these two States. Today, Airbus has subsidiaries in the UK and Spain.

"However, the implementation of this approach entails additional risks of loss of control of the project, – says Alexey Sinitsky. – Besides, the use of high-tech production to other enterprises and especially in other countries creates the risk of loss of their own competencies and requires additional control over the diffusion of technology." Apparently, therefore, according to the chief editor of "air transport review", Airbus in the A350XWB program has somewhat limited the extent of cooperation. Composite elements of the wing produces the German unit of Airbus, the Assembly of the wing executes British unit, the cockpit and panel to fuselage produces part of the Airbus Group company Stelia Aerospace, the nose section of the fuselage panels and tail section – also a subsidiary Premium Aerotec. From independent suppliers, a substantial amount of work falls on the American Spirit AeroSystems, which produces the Central part of the fuselage.

For a common goal

The organization of production of MS-21 oak went to implement, reminiscent of the approach of the European Airbus in the A350XWB project. The Corporation decided to use the power of their own enterprises, creating on their basis of several centers of excellence. In the absence of own production or to look for a third-party supplier, was organized a new specialized company.

"MS-21 is created in broad cooperation, which, along with Irkut is actively involved, and other enterprises of the KLA: "AeroComposite", Ulyanovsk and Voronezh aircraft factories, "UAC-integration Center". This is an important stage in the formation of a new industrial model of the KLA", – said after the first flight of MS-21, the President of UAC, Yuri Slusar.

One of the main participants of cooperation in the program of MS-21 was Ulyanovsk plant "Aviastar-SP". They made kits of fifty panels of all compartments of the fuselage MS-21 – from F1 to F5. On the basis of blanking and stamping production "Aviastar-SP" was organized by the centre of expertise on the fuselage panels. For he reconstructed one of the buildings of the enterprise with an area of more than 15 thousand m2. The centre is equipped with the most modern equipment.

In addition, the program MS-21 involved a new centre of specialization for cargo hatches and doors. The design of their elements in comparison with the old patterns were significantly modified. For their production we use modern types of aluminum alloys. The Assembly is conducted with the application of new rivets. The improved technology of assembling of doors and hatches. Each door to ISAs designed for more than 60 thousand flight, able to open and close about 125 thousand time. Just for one plane, the centre produces 11 doors and hatches.

On the "Aviastar-SP" also passes Assembly fin and stabilizer, stabilizer, MS-21, made podkalivat compartment and the compartment of the auxiliary power unit liner. "Now we start making the first set of the series of aircraft, - says the Director of programme MS-21 in the "Aviastar-SP" Vitaly Ignatiev. – It will consist of five aircraft intended for the airlines."

In the areas of "Aviastar-SP" was built the first Russian plant for the production of structures for aircraft made of composite materials on a progressive infusion techniques. This, the company "AeroComposite-Ulyanovsk" – branch of "AeroComposite". The company itself was formed by the KLA and other firms in December 2008 to create elements from polymeric composite materials for the MS-21 and subsequent prospective liners. In Ulyanovsk production site "AeroComposite" for the MS-21 is produced of the wing panels, spars and integral panels of outer wing. There is an Assembly like the wing and rudders and height, the installation of systems in the center section. Composite nose and tail parts of the wing panels, the rudders mechanization and supplies "KAPO-Composit" – the Kazan company "AeroComposite".

The details of the plumage and wing landing gear of the composites produced in Voronezh

Important cooperative link in the production of MS-21 is the Voronezh aircraft plant (VASO). It produces fairing wing-fuselage fairings wing rails of the flaps, and details of plumage and wing landing gear of composite materials. "Work on the project MS-21 is required by a major mobilization. Moreover, in terms of organization of production, and in terms of recruitment and training is already working, – said the technical Director of VASO Alexander Anokhin. – Our company recently has made significant advances in the field of work with polymer composite materials. However, participation in the project required us to accumulate the experience and focus it on the production of components for MS-21.

We spent a number of measures for the organization of digital production, the introduction of commercial operation of the system Teamcenter. Engineering staff were provided with the necessary hardware and software. Also conducted extensive R & d on the development of new aircraft structures".

In the near future, VACO will supply for the MS-21 is another important component nodes nacelles and pylons for engines PD-14. The new Russian engine in October of 2018, received a certificate type. The nacelles and pylons from Voronezh will be equipped with the MS-21 PD-14 designed for certification testing and obtain a certificate of aircraft type and serial delivery of ships to customers. And on the basis of VASO there will be one center of competence for production of pods.

And this is just the basic cooperation on the airframe of the MC-21. In General, the production of the liner will involve dozens of companies-contractors. An important difference between the MS-21 program from the previous is that this plane has more of Russian components: the MSE of about 80 %. This demonstrates the level of the domestic industry emerged from the crisis of 1990-ies. Today it is able to produce integrated aircraft from which the aircraft is going to a competitive world level.

The state Corporation "rostec" plans to supply MS-21 up to 80% of the avionics. Part of concern radio-Electronic technologies (KRET), for example, produces for the MS-21, about 40% of avionics and 90% of the software. Software development for MS-21 by the company "UAC – integration Center" –a subsidiary company of the KLA. Rostkowski holding "Aviation equipment" supplies for liner the latest aviation systems and undercarriage components and assemblies. Another subsidiary of the Corporation, the United engine Corporation has developed and produces one of two types of main power plant of MS-21 – PD-14 engine, which includes imported components account for no more than 5 %.

Stand main and front landing gear for MS-21 produces Nizhny Novgorod "GidroMash", the hydraulic cylinders of the valves and locks retracted position of the chassis and wings – Samara Aviaagregat (included in the technodynamics). "Technoceramica" also developed for the MS-21, the power supply system, the fire protection system of high reliability, oxygen system that can supply the crew with oxygen during an emergency cabin depressurization, drives a neutral gas.

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Project MS-21 is not much affected by the termination of deliveries of the composites from the USA - Borisov

Certification tests of the aircraft may be delayed

Moscow. June 10. INTERFAX - the Need to replace composite materials in the MS-21 has not become a serious problem for the project, said to "Interfax" Deputy Prime Minister Yuri Borisov.
"For a year (postponed - if). Video (composite materials - Interfax) will not be a serious obstacle, I think we will pursue all the plans for manufacturing of composites", - said Borisov, answering the question about the problem with composite materials.
"There will be more to keep the completion of the certification testing, although three of the aircraft fly. There are always risks: the weather, something else, quite a number of flights have to do to certify the plane by all the rules, both Russian and international," said Deputy Prime Minister.
In February, the head of Rostec Sergey Chemezov said that the serial production of MS-21 aircraft is shifted by a year due to the termination of the United States of America supplies of composite materials.
"Due to the fact that the Americans stopped the supply of composite materials, we come on their composites. Necessary developments and our Russian partners, in particular, Rosatom, is already there. The project will be launched in serial production a few moves. We had been at the end of this year to release some of the planes series, and now it will move to the end of 2020 - i.e. on-year shifts," - said Chemezov.
According to him, composite materials will be Russian and not to buy abroad.
US sanctions against JSC "Aerocomposit" (part of JSC "UAC") and JSC "ORPE "Technologiya" name Romashina" (included in "rostec") has jeopardized the creation of composite "black wing" for MS-21 aircraft, announced in January, the newspaper "Kommersant".
According to the newspaper, the number of components for the composites used for the wing and part of the keel of the MS-21, was from the United States and Japan, but recently, under pressure from Washington, the shipments were stopped. We are talking about the components of production American Japanese Hexcel and Toray Industries.
The MS-21 should be the first medium-range aircraft created in post-Soviet Russia, an elongated composite wing - one of his competitive advantages. It increases the efficiency of the machine and increases the cabin width compared to counterparts from Boeing and Airbus