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By: 28th September 2005 at 07:59 Permalink - Edited 1st January 1970 at 01:00-
P-42 info here:
Taifun was designed by V.A.Korchagin, who was an ex-Bartini designer who also designed the rather wonderful KOR SVVP-70 VTOL amphibian (http://www.ctrl-c.liu.se/misc/ram/korsvvp-70.html)
This the article is dedicated to program "typhoon", accepted in the middle 70- X of years in the Soviet Union. Under this program the number OF OKB developed/processed carrier-based aircraft. We will describe about two projects: the aircraft "typhoon" of chief designer v.A.Korchagin, better-known as chief designer of amphibian aircraft "Yamal", and "Yamal" and P -42 of OKB Of g.M.Beriyeva.
In the middle 70- X of years in the Soviet Union the new program of the development of navy was accepted. The problem of converting Soviet fleet into the oceanic was posed. Began the building of atomic rocket cruisers and aircraft carriers, true, because the Soviet military doctrine bore "defensive" nature, aircraft carriers in THE USSR modestly named/called "heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser". Nevertheless, TAKR of the type "Tbilisi" (now an only ship of this type it bears in the Russian fleet Admiral n.G.Kuznetsov's name) was already valuable aircraft carrier in contrast to those being armed with ship of the type "Moskva" or "Kiev". For fulfilling the tasks, confronting the ships of this class, it was already is clearly insufficient helicopters and aircraft of the type Yak-38.
Very complex problem in the creation of the complex of deck air armament stood before the aircraft industry, but the experiment/experience of the creation of carrier-based aviation in the Soviet Union it was barely.
For evaluating the needs of fleet the analysis of the existed and perspective deck manned air facilities was carried out. Firms and fleet OF THE USA possessed the greatest experiment/experience in a matter of creation and application of carrier-based aviation.
The study of combat experience and technical and operational indices of American impact carrier-based aircraft and support aircraft, their combat employment, including aircraft of antisubmarine defense (PLO), radar surveillance (RLD) and electroninc warfare (REB), showed that the subsonic aircraft with the broad band of the decided tasks, intended for the actions along the ground-based and waterborne targets, compose the basis of the impact forces of the fleet OF THE USA.
In the middle 70- X of years from the aircraft VMS OF THE USA they satisfied these requirements: completely - the carrier-based ground attack aircraft A -6 "Intruder" of firm "Grumman" in six basic modifications, including aircraft RLD, partially - fighter-bombers A -7 "corsair" and A -8 Of "kruzeyder" of firm "Ling-Timko- Vought", aircraft RLD administration E -2 Of "khoukay" of firm "Grumman" and antisubmarine aircraft S -.á "Viking" of firm "Lockheed". These aircraft composed the basis of the park of carrier-based aviation OF THE USA the protection of combat area from the aviation of enemy the fleet OF THE USA it ensured with the supersonic fighter-interceptors, which acted, as a rule, with the aircraft REB and RLD. To the number of destroyers could be related already obsolete at that time aircraft A -7, A -8, F -4 "phantom" and the newest destroyer F -14 "Tomket" firm "Grumman". In the 80th years was expected the entering for the armament of carrier-based aviation of aircraft F -18. all these destroyers they were multipurpose and we could be used on the ground-based and waterborne targets, however, the complexity of their equipment and high cost/value made this use inadvisable.
It is indisputable, the carrier-based fleet OF THE USA - highly effective combat connection, capable of independently accomplishing large-scale combat operations on sea and land TVD.
However, it is obvious that the presence on board the aircraft carrier of several original types of combat aircraft substantially complicates and raises in price the combat employment of aviation impact means, their operation and logistic support. To more complexly support the high level of reliability and combat readiness of aviation engineering, especially under the conditions of conducting the combat operations.
The fact is that in different aircraft types are different the volumes of checkings and the time of time to failure, differs the time of preparation for the repeated departure. All this in field conditions leads to idle time of some aircraft because of the lack of preparation to the departure of others.
On the basis of analysis was made the conclusion/derivation that for guaranteeing the maximum combat readiness of domestic carrier-based aircraft it is necessary to develop/process the effective multipurpose complex of combat subsonic carrier-based aircraft, with their equipment and armament, on the basis of the modification of glider/airframe, power plant and the systems of onboard radio-electronic equipment, by development and applying their large functional moduli/modules.
It had to enter into the composition of complex: the carrier-based ground attack aircraft, aircraft REB, tanker aircraft, the radar picket aircraft and control of the combat operations (URLD), antisubmarine aircraft, light transport. For guaranteeing so wide circle of tasks two modifications of glider/airframe and power plant were provided for. The first three aircraft types were based on the first modification, three following - on the second. The second modification of glider/airframe is characterized by the increased wing of smaller sweepback and the increased middle and aft fuselage sections due to an increase in their upper sections. The forward fuselage with the flight deck, chassis and tail assembly are standardized for both modifications. The glider/airframe of the first modification is calculated for the overload of 7,5 units, by the second - 5,25.
The engines with the larger bypass ratio, which ensure long range and time of patrolling are used on the aircraft of the second modification.
Expediency and possibility of this approach is based on the results of the analysis of close prototypes, which showed that all versions can be executed on the aircraft with a takeoff weight of 22-24 t.
But are such the basic concepts of program"typhoon"?
Only creation of the special aviation systems, designed for the prolonged operation under the conditions of basing aboard the ship during a constant maintenance of the high level of combat effectiveness, could be the only correct approach to the solution of the problem of developing of the new generation of domestic carrier-based aircraft, which ensures the greatest effectiveness of capital and material expenditures.
The attempts to adapt for these purposes any land-based aircraft, developed at the end 60- X of years, could lead only to their worsening/deterioration, delay of periods and rise in price of series production, and as a result to the nonconformity to the worsened/impaired modification of initial aircraft to the increased requirements of fleet aviation of the 80th of years.
With only means to provide the economic profitableness of production with the relatively small, in the comparison with the land programs, series of aircraft they were the principle of the construction of glider/airframe, power plants and systems of different in the designation/purpose aircraft on 1-2 types of the standardized moduli/modules.
This principle had to ensure: a decrease 4-5 times of expenditures for NIOKR in comparison with the creation of several specialized aircraft; a decrease 1,5-2 times of expenditures for development two TRDD º - TURBOFAN ENGINE» with the common moduli/modules of the 1st outline in comparison with the creation of two completely different engines; a decrease by several times of expenditures for the organization of maintenance on board the aircraft carrier;
a significant increase in the combat readiness of aircraft; a decrease 5-6 times of capital and material expenditures for series production; a decrease 3-4 times of expenditures for instruction and agings/trainings of flying and technical personnel.
Application in the composition of the complex of special-purpose aircraft (URLD, REB, PLO, dispenser) very significantly increases the combat capabilities of complex under the effects along the ground-based, waterborne targets and in the operations PLO.
The problems of developing of a similar complex of armaments required the development of program, which consolidated the forces and the means of several leading branches of industry.
The number of fairly complicated problems in the development, the introduction and the guarantee of further operation of combat complex stood before the developers. It was necessary to develop and to create: the complex of combat carrier-based aircraft with onboard equipment and armament; the complex of special shipboard and ground environment and systems of the guarantee of combat employment on sea and ground targets;
measure and the means of the instruction of technical flight composition; measure and program for the guarantee of a high resource/lifetime and combat vitality; measure for guarantee and equipment of the report bases. Task was complicated by the fact that the creation of so elaborate and universal a complex on the base of one construction of aircraft it did not have analogs in the history of domestic aircraft construction.
The complex of carrier-based aviation "typhoon" includes 6 modifications of aircraft, built on two base configurations of glider/airframe and power plant. The following aircraft are constructed on the basis of the first configuration: tactical attack aircraft; the aircraft of electroninc warfare (REB); tanker aircraft. On the basis of the second configuration: the aircraft of antisubmarine defense (PLO); the radar picket aircraft and control (URLD); light transport aircraft.
The aircraft of complex "typhoon" is midwing monoplane with the sweptback wing and the cross-shaped tail assembly. Power plant consists of two TRDD º - TURBOFAN ENGINE» of modular construction/design.
Fuselage - modular construction/design consists of nose, middle and tailed sections. In the nose section local flight deck with the in-line arrangement of catapult armchairs is arranged/located with 2-4- X. The circumscriptions of cab slightly speak in favor of overall fuselage contour, that improves survey/coverage and ensures the necessary volumes for positioning/arranging of equipment and armament hearth with floor.
Cabin entrance of the crew through the hatchway on by right to board/edge below. Before the cab is arranged/located RLS of the survey/coverage of forward half sphere. The forward fuselage is analogous for all modifications of aircraft.
The middle part of the fuselage consists of upper and lower sections. In the lower section it is arranged/located it cut off armaments with size/dimension of 4.shchkhy.yakhy, 3m.
The upper section of the middle part of the fuselage for the second configuration has considerably increased sizes/dimensions, in it is arranged/located the fourth it cut off special equipment and fuel tanks.
Aft fuselage section also consists of upper and lower sections. Lower section is constant for both configurations, upper - in the second configuration is increased along the height.
Wing - arrow-shaped, trapeziform forms, have hinges for the storing of consoles for the purpose of reduction in area, occupied on the deck or in the hangar of aircraft carrier.
The high-lift device of wing includes: sliding slats throughout entire spread/scope; double-slot flaps to 70% of spread/scope.
Lateral control is accomplished by the ailerons, arranged/located on the wing tips. For increasing the combat maneuverability are provided the spoilers on the upper wing surface. The nacelles of basic landing gear struts are located under the wing. On the lower wing surface it can be established/installed to three points of the suspension of armament in the dependence on the modification of aircraft.
In the first configuration the wing had a spread/scope of 16 m and a sweepback on the leading edge 27 deg, in the second version - spread/scope - 19m, sweepback - 20 deg. The tail assembly - arrow-shaped of cross-shaped form, analogous for all modifications of aircraft.
Tail assembly is located in the zone of blowout by the flow, ejected by exhaust jets of engines. This facilitates countering failure of one of the engines and allows the possibility in the selected rated flight performances to ensure the natural reaction of aircraft to a change in the regimes/conditions of the work of engines without the use of controls.
With an increase in the revolutions the pitching moment/torque appears, and aircraft passes into the climb, with the discharge/break of revolutions - to a decrease, under the action of unbalance in the side of dive.
Chassis - tripod with the nose wheel. Basic struts are removed along the flow into the special nacelles on the center section. Forepart/nose strut is displaced to the left from the axle of aircraft for positioning/arranging of blocks RLS and approaches to them, and it is removed into the fuselage along the flow. The emergency release of all landing gear struts - due to the dead weight and the efforts/forces of springs. On the front/leading strut there is a towing link, and in the aft fuselage section - hook of arresting gear.
Power plant of "typhoon" - two TRDD º - TURBOFAN ENGINE» with rated thrust 4500 kg. Engines are arranged/located in two external nacelles on the pylons above the aft fuselage section after the wing. In the first configuration the engines with the smaller bypass ratio are used. The design concept of engines - modular, with the identical moduli/modules of the first outline.
Boxes of aircraft assemblies and assemblies of servicing engines (pumps, regulators so forth.) they are united into one overall box, situated inside the aft fuselage section.
Drive is achieved by means of the long shafts, passing through pylons and free-wheeling clutch. This box is unified for all versions of aircraft and two versions of engines.
Fuel tanks are arranged/located in the wing and the middle part of the fuselage. Normal capacity 5000 kg, maximum - 7000 kg of fuel/propellant. All aircraft of complex, except dispenser, are supplied with the system of in-flight refueling. Fuel-receiver is executed by that retracting into the airtight pipe, arranged/located above the flight deck along the axle of aircraft.
Aircraft has the complete set of the equipment, necessary for the contemporary combat vehicle,: the system of automatic control of aircraft (SAU); sighting and navigation complex; radio communications and radar equipment; lighting equipment; fire prevention system; the system of diagnostics and recording of the flight parameters.
All equipment bays are arranged/located in such a way that for servicing of systems and aggregates/units it would not be required a large quantity of stepladders and stocks.
The carrier-based ground attack aircraft is intended for inflicting of an impact/shock on the accumulations of kinetic energy and technology, the separate strong points, the tanks and other moving targets, RLS, bridges and other units on dry land, and also along the surface ships and the ships in the open sea.
Crew - two people.
Combat load can be placed in the weapon bay and on 6- TI underwing pylons. The dimensions of bomb bay are selected from the condition of positioning/arranging the aerial torpedos. Internal and end pylons are calculated for the combat load 1500-1600 kg and are intended for UR of the type X -15. the average/mean pylons, arranged/located in front of the nacelles of chassis, for positioning/arranging the armament with a weight of up to 700 kg. For the defense from the destroyers of enemy and for dealing with the low altitude and low-speed aerial targets the aircraft can be equipped with air-to-air missiles. In the forward fuselage, to the left hearth hollow of pilot's cab, is established/installed the gun of the caliber of 37 mm.
The aircraft of electroninc warfare (REB) is intended for creating the active jamming with the operation of radars and means of the connection/communication of enemy in the zone of the combat operations of the aircraft of aircraft carrier for the purpose of the guarantee of fulfillment by them of combat mission. The equipment of aircraft does not provide for the retention/maintaining the possibility of the attack of ground targets, but it makes it possible to establish/install air-to-air missiles for the independent defense from the destroyers of enemy. Onboard complex REB makes it possible to simultaneously completely choke work not less than 5 RLS of different designation/purpose.
Crew consists of pilot and three operators of the systems of electronic opposition.
Aircraft is constructed during the first modification of glider/airframe. Four-place flight deck is formed due to the recomposition of the third instrument compartment and transferring of its blocks into the zone of the bomb bay of initial aircraft. In this case in the forward fuselage are added two illuminators even two hatchways, the expendable during the ejection/launching crew members. The layout of remaining systems completely corresponds to base aircraft. Aircraft does not have folds of bomb bay. For the access in essence it cut off equipment (bomb bay) there are special hatchways. Internal underwing pylons are absent. Average/mean and external pylons are used for the suspension of containers with the special equipment and the defensive armament. Normal weight of equipment REB and defensive armament - 3000 kg.
Aerodynamics of aircraft differs little from the initial version; therefore its aerodynamic characteristics, as a whole, correspond to the tactical-technical characteristics of base aircraft (attack aircraft).
Tanker aircraft is intended for in-flight refueling of any aircraft, which are based on aircraft carrier or participating in the joint combat operations. Aircraft is constructed during the first modification of glider/airframe, power plant and main onboard systems.
Crew - two people: aircraft commander and the second pilot- navigator, who fulfills the functions of the operator of the systems of servicing.
They enter into the composition of standard fuelling equipment: hose with the cone and the winch for their harvesting; servicing capacities/capacitances; transfer pump. Basic servicing capacities/capacitances and equipment for pumping fuel/propellant are located in cargo hold, winch with the hose - from below in the aft fuselage section. In the shifting version the suspension of two extra fuel tanks a with capacity/capacitance of 2000 l each each is possible. The total tank capacity of dispenser of approximately 16 000 l, of them 11 000 l can be transmitted to other aircraft.
The folds of cargo hold do not have drives and can be opened only on the earth/ground (board/edge of aircraft carrier) for servicing of systems and aggregates/units.
The complex of radar, navigation and communication equipment with the display systems is the minimum complete set of functional moduli/modules, which is repeated on all aircraft of complex.
Project provided for the version of dispenser, built during the second modification of glider/airframe and SU, with two servicing aggregates/units on the outer planes of wing. In this case is possible the simultaneous servicing of the pair of aircraft of the type Su-27K, the distance between them in this case will be about 4,5 m, which during a good training of crews is completely permissible.
The flight performances of tanker aircraft correspond to data of initial aircraft.
Designation/purpose of carrier-based antisubmarine aircraft: search and the destruction of submarines from the position of a constant combat patrolling ship escort of aircraft carrier upon transfers also in the combat operations.
Into the composition of search equipment enters the sono system, capable of determining drift and coordinates of buoys without the flight/span above them.
As the duplicating systems is used BY RLS of forward half sphere, magnetometric station, IR- system and systems of passive electronic reconnaissance.
The work of all search systems is coordinated by central COMPUTER all tactical information and the calculated weapons given for the application are transferred by the protected channels of communications aboard other antisubmarine aircraft and ships of escort.
The weight of the equipment of speciales-complex PLO composes 1400 kg, weights of the expendable weapon, including buoys - 2700 kg.
Crew - four people. Chief pilot - craft commander has an indicator to CRT, which reflects general tactical situation, moving coordinates of aircraft and targets, and also point of the discharge/break of weapon.
Copilot, besides the responsibilities of navigator, fulfills duties of the operator of nonacoustical systems. Information from these systems is allowed to it with the aid of the multipurpose indicator on CRT and can be transferred to the indicator of tactical situation.
The third member of crew, tactical coordinator, determine the tactics of operation. He governs/controls data processing, coordinates the interrogation of systems, provides control of the sensors of these systems and weapon systems.
Data of targets/purposes, obtained by copilot and operator of sonar systems, enter the indicators of tactical coordinator. With the aid of THE COMPUTER(S) it produces the calculation of target position and data for the flight to it, selects the best tactics and makes decision about the attack of target/purpose, indicating the coordinates of the discharge/break of weapon.
The operator of sonar systems carries out processing acoustic data, that come from active and passive buoys, it reveals and classifies targets/purposes and determines their coordinates.
Aircraft commander, tactical coordinator and copilot have the capability of applying the weapon.
Aircraft is constructed during the second modification of glider/airframe and power plant. The layout of main aircraft systems, RLS, connected navigation equipment, in essence, is analogous to the layout of these systems on the aircraft of the first modification, since it is based on the application of the standardized moduli/modules of equipment. The units of infrared equipment are arranged/located after antenna RLS, to the right of the niche of chassis.
The units OF COMPUTER(S), means of passive radio intelligence, the units of magnetometric equipment are arranged/located in the upper fuselage section, throughout the entire length of cargo hold from back rest of flight deck to the thrust section.
It cut off isolated from the weapon bay partition- hollow with the through passage- manhole. Access into the section - through the entrance port in the flight deck and through the hatchways in the ceiling of weapon bay.
Sensor of magnetometer - sliding, on the rod with a length of about 6 m, which is retracted by electric drive into the pipe, which passes along the axis of the symmetry of aircraft in the upper part of the rear compartment of fuselage.
Torpedo armament is placed in the bomb bay and to two-four underwing pylons. Radioacoustic buoys are placed in tail end of the bomb bay.
Receivers and sensors of the system of passive radio intelligence are placed in wingtip fairings and on two underwing pylons.
Since the structural/design modulus/module of the forward fuselage is standardized on the structure diagram, the circumscriptions and the glazing for all aircraft of complex, four-place flight deck is arranged analogously with the compartment of the aircraft REB of a difference in the layout of the work sites of crew they are determined only by different composition of console equipment and indicators on them.
Designation/purpose of the aircraft of operational control and of radar surveillance (URLD): long-range detection and the classification of the aerial targets above the sea and dry land; the guarantee of radio relay communication between the combat aircraft, with the aircraft carrier and ground-based KP; operational control and the guidance of impact aircraft and fighter-interceptors; the guidance of combat aircraft to the aircraft to dispensers; the identification of warships; the coordination of rescue operations.
Each aircraft of the combat group of aircraft carrier during the combined actions transfers to aircraft URLD information about its type, armament, quantity of fuel/propellant and attitude.
The central processor (COMPUTER(S)) of aircraft URLD transfers to it the data about the necessary maneuver, the height, the course, the speed and the distance to the target/purpose.
Two synchronously revolving along the azimuth in sector of 180° antennas, which ensure circular scan, arranged/located by one in the forepart/nose, another in the aft fuselage section, are used on the aircraft.
Analogous antennas, antennas of Cassegrain, are used in the English aircraft OF RLD "Nimrod" of firm "Hawker-Siddeley". In contrast to the application of one rotatory antenna of large diameter in the disk above the fuselage, this decreases to the minimum influence on the stability parameters and aircraft handling and makes it possible not to develop/process third modification of glider/airframe.
Furthermore, in this case is absent shady unexamined "funnel/hopper" under the aircraft, and the conditions for arrangement/position and operating the aircraft in the hangars of aircraft carrier also are simplified.
The crew of aircraft - four people, in this case copilot, besides the responsibilities of pilot- navigator, fulfills duties of one of three operators.
The total weight of equipment URLD is approximately 2500-3000 kg. aircraft it is built during the second modification of glider/airframe and power plant. Original for the aircraft URLD appeared only nose fairing antennas RLS and the zamennaya extremity of aft fuselage section to the fairing about the rear antenna RLS the layout of aircraft in principle does not differ from the layout of antisubmarine aircraft.
On it there is no weapon bay and folds of bomb bays.
Entire cargo hold is occupied with equipment and has the central gangway throughout entire length, the access into which on the deck and in flight from the flight deck. On the wing are provided four pylons for positioning/arranging the containers with the auxiliary equipment.
The length of the aircraft of y"m. weight given correspond to antisubmarine aircraft flight performances worse than in antisubmarine aircraft to 10-12%.
Carrier-based light transport aircraft (PLTS) is intended for the urgent delivery/procurement of personnel and loads to the aircraft carrier from coast bases and vice versa, the urgent evacuation of patients and injured from the ship, and also for the parachute landing of small razvedovatelño- saboteur parties with the easy armament.
Aircraft is constructed during the second modification of glider/airframe and power plant. In the cargo hold there is cargo floor with the cargo tie-down devices, hinged/reversible seats of passengers and rails of attached telpher by the load capacity of y000kg.
Entrance into the cargo hold - through the cargo hatch in the left side of the fuselage before the wing. In tail end of cargo hold is a detectable hatchway for the parachute landing.
Like dispenser, this aircraft have the minimum complete set of the moduli/modules of navigation and communication equipment. Load capacity of aircraft 3000 kg or 12-14 landing force members (four in modulus/module of cab) and 800-1000 kg of loads. The special modification of aircraft with the comfortable salon to 4-6 passengers, with the cloakroom and the baggage carrier is possible. Flight-performance data and weight ratios of glider/airframe and systems are analogous to data of antisubmarine aircraft.
Span of wing, m 16.00
Length, m 15.70
Height, m 5.20
Wing area, m2 49.50
the normal takeoff 22000
the fuel/propellant 5000
Type of the engine 2 TRDD º - TURBOFAN ENGINE»
Thrust/rod, kg 2 X 4500
Maximum speed, the km/h 1070
Service range, km 2520
Time of bombardment, ch 7
Maximum rate of climb, m/min 1320
Armament: Combat load - normally - 2500 kg, it is maximal - 5500 kg
Add. the information:
List of the sources:
Wings of the native land. Constantine udalov, Valerie pogodin. Carrier-based aircraft. On the Soviet program "typhoon"
By: TinWing - 28th September 2005 at 01:46
1. Here's the link to "Taifun:"
I got very little from the translation. I'm not even sure about the OKB. (Beriev?) However, I do get the impression that the COD role was very much in the minds of the designers (more so than with the Viking).
The side profile drawing was more informative.
Notice the flight refueling basket of an internal HDU - much like a KA-6D.
In addition, the engine location is very clever - and more reminiscent of business jet practice than the S-3 Viking.
So we have a mystery COD/Tanker/ASW aircraft?
Can anyone shed some light on the "Taifun."
2. The above link refers to "P-42." (Not to be confused with the record setting Sukhoi Su-27 derivative.)
As I understand it, the P-42 was a turboprop powered ASW aircraft.
I found the attached image in a drawing of the Russian carrier Baku (later Gorshkov). Notice the peculiar butterfly tail. Which OKB made this proposal?