Military Fighter Aircraft

Commonly called fighter aircraft or fighter jets; these fixed wing aircraft can be interceptors, bombers or reconnaissance aircraft with an electronic warfare role. Some modern fighter jets are what is called multirole aircraft. Military fast jets typically have one or two seats and often operate in a two-fighter team, with a lead and a wingman. It is their speed and versatility that distinguish a fighter from other types of military aircraft, such as transport planes or dedicated reconnaissance platforms.

Croatia receives final offers for MiG-21 replacement

The Croatian Ministry of Defence revealed on November 11 that it has received final offers from four government teams seeking to provide the country with a new multi-role fighter

Germany contracts Airbus to deliver ‘Quadriga’ Eurofighters

Airbus signed a contract on November 11 to deliver 38 new-build Tranche 4 Eurofighter EF-2000 multi-role fighters to Germany as the nation seeks to replace its older Tranche 1 aircraft under Project Quadriga

Boeing secures $9.8bn Saudi F-15 support contract

Boeing will provide modernisation and sustainment services for Saudi Arabia’s F-15 multi-role fighter fleet after it was awarded a US$9.8bn contract by the US Department of Defense on November 10

Romanian F-16 upgrade approved by US

The US State Department announced on November 3 that it has approved the possible Foreign Military Sale (FMS) of upgrade equipment to Romania, which seeks to modernise its Lockheed Martin F-16 Fighting Falcon fleet

Germany green lights ‘Quadriga’ Eurofighter purchase

Germany approved the EUR€5.5bn purchase of 38 new-build Tranche 4 Eurofighter EF-2000s on November 5, as the air force aims to replace its older Tranche 1 aircraft under Project Quadriga

France declares IOC of Talios pod on Rafale F3-R

The French Air and Space Force declared initial operational capability of the Talios laser designation pod on the Dassault Rafale F3-R multi-role fighter on October 29

Sweden to retain Gripen C/D for at least another decade

On October 23, Saab outlined the Swedish Air Force’s plan to upgrade and retain two squadrons of Gripen C/D multi-role fighters for at least another decade

Spain set to replace Hornets with more Eurofighters

Spain is seeking 20 new-build Eurofighter EF-2000s to complement its existing fleet of the multi-role fighter and to replace its Boeing F/A-18A Hornet fleet, which are based on the Canary Islands

USMC F-35Bs receive ODIN hardware

The F-35 Joint Program Office announced on October 9 that the Operational Data Integrated Network (ODIN) support system has been loaded onto US Marine Corps (USMC)-operated F-35B Lightning IIs for the first time

Indonesia wants to buy Austria’s Typhoon fleet

Austria's Defence Ministry has started negotiations for the possible sale of its entire Eurofighter Typhoon fleet to Indonesia

Fighter aircraft were not the first heavier-than-air military aircraft. During the First World War bi-planes with a pilot and a crew member would carry out. Guns were soon added to these aircraft and the fighters were born; the term dogfight became synonymous with the new form of aerial combat. These aircraft would also crudely drop bombs with a crew member simply throwing the bombs out of the aircraft. After the First World War, fighter development led to the single wing, enclosed cockpit, propeller powered aircraft such as the RAF Hawker Hurricane, Luftwaffe Messerschmitt Bf 109 and the United States Army Airforce North American Aviation P-51 Mustang. After the war, the RAF Gloster Meteor was the RAF’s first operational jet fighter and it was rapidly joined by fast jets from France, Russia and the USA.

Today, the roles of military fast jets have hardly changed, from intercepting other fast jets fighters or bombers, to maintaining air superiority, they are bombing air defences and photographing bombed sites for battle damage assessment as well as escorting slower, more vulnerable aircraft.

Different Types of Fighter Planes

From the first aerial reconnaissance aircraft, the Wright brothers military flyer, or Model A, sold to the US military in 1909, it took 45 years until the United States Airforce’s North American F-100 Super Sabre became the world’s first operational supersonic fighter in 1954. There has been a huge amount of technological development between the Super Sabre and the world’s first operational fifth generation fighter, the United States Marine Corp’s Lockheed Martin F-35B/C Lightning II, which entered service in 2015. All fixed wing aircraft, since the advent of jet fighters in World War Two, have been a variety of designs to meet the military’s changing needs. Jet engines were in development before World War Two, but it was only near the end of that war that the first operational fast jet fighter, the Messerschmitt Me 262, took to the skies.

Fighters steadily developed to fly higher and faster, carry more payloads, both missiles and bombs, and became supersonic. The need for greater speed saw the delta wing shape for supersonic flight, air-to-air missiles were used in the Korean War for the first time, and it was only later that fighters were equipped with radar, allowing for longer range interception. The 1960s saw the development of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) capability with the Royal Navy’s Hawker Siddeley Harrier, which is still in service with the Indian military. Propeller powered fighter aircraft did not end with the flights of the Gloster Meteor and the 1950s saw experiments with VTOL propeller powered aircraft that sat on their tails in a vertical position.

Since the 1980s fast jets have become stealthy, first with the now retired Lockheed Martin F-117 Nighthawk which was primarily a bomber, to the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor, an interceptor, and the multirole Lockheed Martin F-35, which are both said to have very small radar signatures.

Find out more about other types of Military Aircraft

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